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Table 3 Correlating the functional outcome (urinary control) to the type of cloaca based on the level of urogenital confluence

From: Persistent cloaca: persistence of the challenge

Urogenital confluenceNumberVoiding spontaneouslyUrinary incontinenceLess than 3 years or lost to follow-up
Low confluence (type 1)105 (50%)1 (10%)
(caudal regression)
4 (40%)
Intermediate confluence (type 2)147 (50%)2 (14.3%)5 (35.7%)
High confluence (type 3)82 (25%)5 (62.5%)
(1 poor sacrum + 1 tethered cord)
1 (12.5%)
Total3214 (43.7%)8 (25%)10 (31.3%)