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Table 1 BTI methodology to treat CIH: guidance, number, and local of injections

From: Botulinum toxin abdominal wall injection and post-omphalocele ventral hernia repair: database and proposal of a protocol

Author Method Number of injections/side Local of injections Distribution
Ibarra-Hurtado et al. 2009 [17] EMG guided 5 EOM AAL (2), MAL (3)
Ibarra-Hurtado et al. 2014 [13] US guided 5 Inter muscular: EOM-IOM AAL (2), MAL (3)
Elstner et al. 2016 [19] US guided 3 EOM – IOM - TAM AAL (3), next to the 9th rib (1), next to the anterior iliac crest (1)
Chavez-Tostado et al. 2014 [7] Without real time image guiding 5 IOM AAL (3), next to the 9th rib (1), next to the anterior iliac crest (1)
Rodriguez-Acevedo et al. 2018 [4] US guided 5 EOM – IOM - TAM AAL (3), next to the 9th rib (1), next to the anterior iliac crest (1)
Nielsen et al. 2019 [12] US guided 5 EOM – IOM - TAM AAL (3), next to the 9th rib (1), next to the anterior iliac crest (1)
Zielinski et al. 2013 [14] US guided 3 EOM – IOM - TAM AAL (2), MAL (3)