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Table 1 UGI series findings in relation to patients’ symptoms

From: Upper gastrointestinal series in children: what surgeons need to know

Primary complaint (number of patients*) Findings when isolated Findings when combined with other symptoms
Normal study Idiopathic GER Esophageal or oropharyngeal abnormalities Gastric abnormalities Duodenal abnormalities***
Vomiting (75)** Normal (13), GER (1), pyloric obstruction with gastritis (1) 23 15 Peptic stricture (1) Pyloric obstruction (2), IHPS (2), gastritis (2), hiatus hernia (4), hiatus hernia with gastric volvulus (1), primary gastric volvulus (3) Duodenal atresia (1), midgut malrotation (3), midgut malrotation with midgut volvulus (1), SMA syndrome (1)
Dysphagia (13) Normal (5) 6 0 Achalasia secondary to mediastinal lymphoma (1) Gastritis (1)  
Recurrent chest infection (11) Normal (3) 5 0 False passage of the esophagus (1) Diaphragmatic hernia and volvulus of the stomach (1) Midgut malrotation with gastric volvulus (1)
Aspiration (9) Normal (1) 3 0 Oropharyngeal aspiration (5) 0 0
  1. GER gastroesophageal reflux, IHPS infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, SMA superior mesenteric artery syndrome
  2. *The number of patients was calculated according to the primary complaint
  3. **Additional one case with Alport syndrome (with midgut malrotation, combined hiatus hernia, diffuse esophageal leiomyomatosis) was complaining of vomiting epigastric pain and dysphagia.
  4. ***All patients with duodenal abnormalities presented with attacks of bilious vomiting