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Table 1 Patients with patent urachus associated with/without BOO showing antenatal US findings, associated anomalies, management, and outcomes. Outcome after surgery of the PU as it is. In the patients with another pathology associated, the outcome includes renal function

From: Patent urachus and bladder outflow obstruction—chance or consequence? A study of a cohort of patients with complete patent urachus presenting to a tertiary urological center and a review of literature

Diagnosis BOO Antenatal us findings Associated anomalies Management Outcome
Sacrococcygeal teratoma Present Sacrococcygeal teratoma Bilateral hydronephrosis/neuropathic bladder and bowel Indwelling catheter Good renal function, incontinence fecal, and urinary due to neuropathy
Atretic posterior urethra Present Normal (1987) Fallot tetralogy/bilateral hydronephrosis/left undescended testes Cystofix > vesicostomy > final repair Good renal function, resolution of upper renal tract dilatation
Atretic anterior urethra/PBS Present Normal (1983) Prune belly syndrome/bilateral VUR/bilateral undescended testes Vesicostomy > mitrofanoff + augmentation CKD stage 2 Hypertension
Urethral hypoplasia Present Cord cyst
Left hydronephrosis and megacystis
VACTERL/left VUR in dysplastic left kidney Vesicostomy CKD stage 2
Exomphalos Absent Bladder exstrophy or patent urachus or exomphalos Exomphalos Repair of exomphalos and closure of PU Good
PU Absent Normal Right grade III VUR PU excision and antibiotics Good
PU Absent Cord cysts Right duplex kidney with VUR into the lower moiety PU excision and antibiotics Good
PU Absent Normal Proteus syndrome/hemangioma left testes PU excision Good
PU Absent Not available   PU excision Good + keloid
PU Absent Cord cyst   PU excision Good + protuberant umbilicus
PU Absent Cord cyst   PU excision Good
PU Absent Omphalocele   PU excision Good
PU Absent Normal   PU excision Good
MCMA twin and urogenital sinus Absent Conjoint twin Two hemivaginal openings at introitus Excision of PU and ileostomy Good renal function
PU Absent Normal Hemangioma on scalp PU excision Good
PU Absent Not available   PU excision Good