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Table 3 BTI to treat CIH: results

From: Botulinum toxin abdominal wall injection and post-omphalocele ventral hernia repair: database and proposal of a protocol

Author n Timing Control Defect Surgery Recurrences
Ibarra-Hurtado et al. 2009 [17] 12   CT (4 and 1 preop weeks) Mean 13.9 cm 6 direct closure+6 anterior MCM None (mean FU 9 mo, 4–18)
Elstner et al. 2016 [9] 32 14 weeks preop CT (preop, 2 mo Pop, 6 mo Pop) 5 × 9 cm to 24–27 cm 26 direct closure w/mesh reinforcement +6 anterior MCM None (mean FU 19 mo - 5–39)
Chavez-Tostado et al. 2014 [7] 14 mean 40.1 preop days CT (4 and 1 preop weeks) Mean 14.6 cm (282 cm2) 11/14 direct closure, 3/14 MCM, both w/mesh reinforcement None (mean FU 34 mo – 18–120)
Rodriguez-Acevedo et al. 2018 [4] 56 7–14 days preop CT (preop, 10 days post TB injection, mo Pop, 2 and 6 mo Pop) Mean 11.6 cm (5 × 9 to 28 × 19 cm) 48/56 direct closure, 8/56 MCM, both w/mesh reinforcement One (questionable)
Nielsen et al. 2019 [12] 37 3–4 weeks preop CT Mean 12 × 20 cm 22/37 direct closure, 15/37 MCM, both w/mesh reinforcement Not reported
Zielinski et al. 2013 [14] 18 Pre-closure (open abdomen) None Not described 83% primary closure, 9/18 MCM 11% recurrence, 6% mortality